【PART 5】  The Last Mystery Voluntary slavish obedience and its historical origin


【14】 The negative origin of Article 9-2: disarmament by the Allies


Even though it’s an undesirable reality for us Japanese, another important thing is that Article 9-2 was born for an extremely negative reason. Please refer to Article 8 of the Atlantic Charter (PART 4). This is what it says:

… Since no future peace can be maintained if land, sea, or air armaments continue to be employed by nations which threaten, or may threaten aggression outside of their frontiers, they [the U.S. and U.K.] believe, pending the establishment of a wider and permanent system of general security, that the disarmament of such nations is essential. …

“Such nations” which require demilitarization refers mainly to Germany and Japan, after Italy surrendered in September 1943. Article 9-2 was clearly established, in part, for the purpose of disarming a defeated country.

Please recall the fact that Vandenberg, the author of the “enemy state clauses” in the UN Charter (revised version of Article 53), stated that “the main purpose [of enemy state clauses] is permanently and conclusively and effectively disarming Germany and Japan.”

Kades, who volunteered to write Article 9, has also admitted that the main aim was to keep Japan demilitarized.

In other words, Article 9-2 is not only a prayer for peace for the Japanese. Rather, it most definitely has a negative aspect, which originates in the Atlantic Charter and enemy state clauses of the UN Charter: the prevention of aggressional policies by perpetually disarming Japan. As I’ve explained, the stationing of U.S. Forces based on the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty also has that aspect.

It’s quite natural when you think about it. I was surprised to find out while writing this book that the “advisor” (Chief of Staff of the U.S. delegation) of Senator Vandenberg, who wrote the UN Charter’s enemy state clauses in the 1945 San Francisco Conference(*), was none other than John Foster Dulles. It’s the same Dulles who has come up in the story numerous times  — he created the San Francisco Peace Treaty and the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty, thereby assuring the unlimited, unconditional stationing of U.S. Forces in Japan.

Therefore, the issues of the U.S. military bases in Japan, Article 9-2 of the Constitution, and “enemy state clauses” of the UN Charter are all closely linked in ways that we Japanese had not realized. If we want to solve even one of them, we must consider all three as a package deal and solve them at the same time.


* ・・・ The formal name is the United Nations Conference on International Organization. The conference was held in San Francisco from April 25 to June 26, 1945, convened by the U.S., U.K., Soviet Union, and China (the so-called Big Four).